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A divide is a topographically high area that separates a landscape into different water basins. The rain that falls on the north side of a ridge flows into the northern drainage basin and rain that falls on the south side flows into the southern drainage basin. On a much grander scale, entire continents have divides, known as continental divides.

North American continental divide.

The pattern of tributaries within a drainage basin depends mainly on the type of rock beneath, and on structures within that rock (folds, fractures, faults, etc.). Dendriticpatterns, which are by far the most common, develop in areas where the rock (or unconsolidated material) beneath the stream has no particular fabric or structure and can be eroded equally easily in all directions. Examples would be granite, gneiss, volcanic rock, and sedimentary rock that has not been folded. Trellis drainage patterns typically develop where sedimentary rocks have been folded or tilted and then eroded to varying degrees depending on their strength. The Rocky Mountains of B.C. and Alberta are an excellent example of this, and many of the drainage systems within the Rockies have trellis patterns. Rectangular patterns develop in areas that have very little topography and a system of bedding planes, fractures, or faults that form a rectangular network. The fourth type of drainage pattern, which is not specific to a drainage basin, is known as radial. Radial patterns form around isolated mountains (such as volcanoes) or hills, and the individual streams typically have dendritic drainage patterns.

Stream patterns

Over geological time, a stream will erode its drainage basin into a smooth profile similar to that shown. If we compare this with an ungraded stream like Cawston Creek, we can see that graded streams are steepest in their headwaters and their gradient gradually decreases toward their mouths. Ungraded streams have steep sections at various points, and typically have rapids and waterfalls at numerous locations along their lengths.

The ocean is the ultimate base level, but lakes and other rivers act as base levels for many smaller streams. Engineers can create an artificial base level on a stream by constructing a dam.

Sediments accumulate within the flood plain of a stream, and then, if the base level changes, or if there is less sediment to deposit, the stream may cut down through those existing sediments to form terraces.

In the late 19th century, American geologist William Davis proposed that streams and the surrounding terrain develop in a cycle of erosion. Following tectonic uplift, streams erode quickly, developing deep V-shaped valleys that tend to follow relatively straight paths. Gradients are high, and profiles are ungraded. Rapids and waterfalls are common. During the mature stage, streams erode more broad valleys and start to deposit thick sediment layers. Gradients are slowly reduced and grading increases. In old age, streams are surrounded by rolling hills, and they occupy broad sediment-filled valleys. Meandering patterns are common.

Davis’s work was done long before the idea of plate tectonics, and he was not familiar with the impacts of glacial erosion on streams and their environments. While some parts of his theory are out of date, it is still a useful way to understand streams and their evolution.

A depiction of the Davis cycle of erosion: a: initial stage, b: youthful stage, c: mature stage, and d: old age.


Ponds and lakes are bordered by hills or low rises so that the water is blocked from flowing directly downhill. Ponds are small bodies of fresh water that usually have no outlet; ponds are often are fed by underground springs. Lakes are more substantial bodies of water. Lakes are usually fresh water, although the Great Salt Lake in Utah is just one exception. Water usually drains out of a lake through a river or a stream, and all lakes lose water to evaporation.

Large lakes have tidal systems and currents, and can even affect weather patterns. The Great Lakes in the United States contain 22 percent of the world’s fresh surface water. The largest them, Lake Superior, has a tide that rises and falls several centimeters each day. The Great Lakes are large enough to alter the weather system in the Northeastern United States by the “lake effect,” which is an increase in snow downwind of the relatively warm lakes. The Great Lakes are home to countless species of fish and wildlife.

Lakes form in a variety of different ways: in depressions carved by glaciers, in calderas, and along tectonic faults, to name a few. Subglacial lakes are even found below an ice cap. As a result of geologic history and the arrangement of land masses, most lakes are in the Northern Hemisphere.

Limnology is the study of bodies of freshwater and the organisms that live there. The ecosystem of a lake is divided into three distinct sections:

  • Surface (littoral) zone is the sloped area closest to the edge of the water.
  • Open-water zone (also the photic or limnetic zone) has abundant sunlight.
  • Deep-water zone (also the aphotic or profundal zone) has little or no sunlight.

There are several life zones found within a lake. In the littoral zone, sunlight promotes plant growth, which provides food and shelter to animals such as snails, insects, and fish. In the open-water zone, other plants and fish, such as bass and trout, live. The deep-water zone does not have photosynthesis since there is no sunlight. Most deep-water organisms are scavengers, such as crabs and catfish that feed on dead organisms that fall to the bottom of the lake. Fungi and bacteria aid in the decomposition in the deep zone. Though different creatures live in the oceans, ocean waters also have these same divisions based on sunlight with similar types of creatures that live in each of the zones.

Lakes are not permanent features of a landscape. Some come and go with the seasons, as water levels rise and fall. Over a longer time, lakes disappear when they fill with sediments, if the springs or streams that fill them diminish, or if their outlets grow because of erosion. When the climate of an area changes, lakes can either expand or shrink. Lakes may disappear if precipitation significantly diminishes.



Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Introduction to Physical Geography by R. Adam Dastrup is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Kategoria: Moje artykuły | Dodał: kolo (2019-04-08)
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